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Students gathered around the teacher as usual in the morning under the tree to hear the day`s sermon. Then a bird came to the tree and sat on a branch. It sang a beautiful song. At the end the teacher said: ""The sermon for today is ovel:""

Understanding the Concept

Unlike academic subjects, peace education is as dependent on the person as the teacher is. Children learn peaceful behavior more from the ways a teacher speaks, responds to challenges, and looks at issues, than what he teaches. Obviously an unpeaceful teacher cannot teach peace, because his behavior contradicts what he teaches. This chapter explores the characteristics of a peace teacher along with his approaches to teaching and learning in the classroom.

Attitudes and values are difficult to teach. Teaching them tends to create resistance in learners, because such inculcation itself is experienced as an imposition. Carl Roger (1961) rightly says in this regard, It seems to me that anything that can be taught to another is relatively inconsequential and has little or no significant influence on behavior, Hence I have to feel that outcomes of teaching are either unimportant or hurtful.

Teacher-centered and subject-centered approaches are ineffective in peace education. The most effective approach would be child-centered education. In fact, child-centered education is a natural extension of the notion of child rights into the classroom and school.

It is built on the following principles:

*Acceptance of the child`s rights to the freedom of expression, obtain information and make opinion.

*Acceptance of the right to childhood.

*The child is the agent of his own learning.

*Each child is unique in his complex of capacities, aptitudes, interest and experience. Therefore a general approach and treatment in the classroom is unfair and less helpful.

*Education should foster the development of the individual in the child.

*Education is not mere preparation of the child for an adult life in future.

*The child has a right to enjoy a child [Every age, every stage in life has perfection, a ripeness in its own.

Subject fragmented curriculum distorts the perception of wholeness. Adoption of integrated school curriculum is helpful to whole child development. Children need life education as well.

*Lifelong education should be encouraged from the primary stage.

*Learning to learn is the foundation of child-centered education.

*Learning by doing [experiential learning] is most effective.

*Learning needs to be related to self.

*Understanding Children`s Needs

*Basic Human Needs

Abraham Maslow (1960) identified five basic human needs. They are:

1. Physiological Needs: e.g. food, clothing, rest, health, exercise, clean environment

2. Security Needs: e.g. social security, freedom from threat, etc.

3. Love or Acceptance Needs: e.g. understanding, tolerance, support, friendship, warmth, good relationships.

4. Self esteem needs: e.g. positive evaluation being respected.

5. Self-actualization: e.g. developing word perfection. Discovering the ultimate meaning of life. Peak experiences are ultimate achievement.

According to the theory, the locus of a person`s attention starts from physical needs and rise to higher needs. The three basic levels implied here are physiological, social and self. Though these needs were found in adults, they are visible in children as well Children`s needs

E. Wallet (1974) attempted to identify children`s needs, basically following the above model. He postulates six needs in children.

1. Physiological needs: e.g. food, clothing. House, health.

2. Love and attention: e.g. encouragement, proxies, physical touch and warmth, support.

3. Creative expression: e.g. development of the capacities of sense, creative self-expression, joy, exploring new ways of self-expression.

4. Achievement of cognitive skills: e.g. learning to know.

5. Social skills: e.g. acceptance by peers, interaction with others and need to be related to others.

The need to be a person

Carl Rogers stresses that there is an intrinsic need in us to be an authentic person. The basic quests that constantly arises from our inner depth are:

- Who am I?

- How can I know myself?

- How I can be my true self

- Am I living at present in such a way as to express my true self!

- Am I living in the most self-satisfying way?

Carl Rogers postulates the negligence to be the true self, creates frustration leading to psychological conflicts.

In the child-centered approach, the teacher is more active at the preparation stage of the lessons than the delivery stage. He has to select appropriate learning activities.

In being a facilitator the teacher:

- identifies, meaningful and relevant learning activities through which the lesson could be built and delivered effectively.

- encourages children to discover concepts and approaches through the use of creative methods such as brainstorming and problem-solving.

- builds a conducive atmosphere in the classroom where students can openly express their opinions, attitudes, assumptions and judgments.

- prefers short verbal presentations.

- encourages students to look at issues from various view points, leading to divergent thinking.

- builds the summary of the lesson as key points, and concepts on the board.

- directs students to various activities such as reference to sources in order to gather information.

- helps students to organize information into knowledge.

Experimental Learning

The basic approach adopted in child-centered education is the experiential learning method, popularly known as learning by doing or activity-based learning. For this the teacher has to select suitable activities relevant to the subject content. Through these activities children discover knowledge for themselves. Experiential learning is effective in learning concepts, values and attitudes. Peace education uses this approach as a basic method.

It is useful here to discuss how to present and conduct learning activities in a class.

A learning activity means here a learning experience provided to students to discover certain concepts, generalizations, values and attitudes relevant to the lesson concerned. A good learning activity has the following characteristics.

- It is a game like interesting activity.

- It is well structured.

- It provides a meaningful learning experience.

- It is appropriate to the level of the learners.

- It is challenging.

- It inspires self-development.

Teacher`s Role as Facilitator

In the child-centered method the teacher plays a number of roles, as a facilitator. As a planner, the teacher sets goals and selects most appropriate learning activities. As an initiator of learning he creates interest and introduces activities. He builds a conducive climate for the lesson. He guides the process towards the goals by directing, supporting, bringing in the missing points, and helping individual learners. He mediates between groups or individuals when they are stuck with problems. At the end of the activity the teacher organizes their knowledge through discussion. Finally he evaluates how far the goals have been achieved.

Experimental Learning

Learning from experience is most natural to us. But that does not mean we learn from every experience. To learn from experience you have to reflect and inquire as to incident. For instance, you have to ask yourself: What happened? What can I learn from it? This means that learning from experience demands reflection, conceptualization and generalization and application to new situations. (After Kolb 1984) The model could be presented in the following manner:

1 .Concrete Experience

2. Reflection

3. Conceptualization and Generalization

4. Application

Experimental Learning Cycle

Following the learning cycle above, the teacher provides an activity relevant to the lesson. Students individually or in pairs or in groups may do it. The outcome of the activity is not revealed ahead allowing the students to discover it by themselves. On the completion of the activity the groups are convened to class, where they reflect on the activity. The teacher facilitates reflection by asking them:

1. What did you do? (To remind the type of activity)

2. How did you proceed? (To remind the sequence)

3. How did you feel? What did you find out? What do you think? (To get involved in discussion/ sharing)

Discussion proceeds from reflection to conceptualization and then to generalization.

During this discussion students identify and build concepts, arrive at conclusions from their findings. They also investigate application of the findings to practical situations in daily life.



Activities are structured to be carried out individually, in pairs, triads, small groups, large groups or whole class.

Physical arrangement

Some activities can be carried out within the class, with no special arrangement. However, many activities need space to move around and work in groups, in sitting or standing positions. In carrying out certain play like activities, the most convenient arrangement would be to sit in a large circle facing inside making a large space in the centre. Sitting in a circle creates a participatory climate. When you find no hall facilities inside the school, you can take the class out.

1. Debating

Debate is a curiosity provoking activity that leads learners to find information on a particular social, political or ethical issue under study, e.g. should we abolish capital punishment?

Debate promotes students` critical and logical thinking. It also helps to improve skills in public speaking and presentation. A debate need not always be organized elegantly. It can be used as a brief activity during a lesson at the classroom. For instance, you can have an instant and short debate on a controversial issue related to the lesson. Divide the class in the two sides of the controversy. One student can speak for or against for 3 minutes only or present only one argument. A judgment is not necessary. Such debates help extensive exploration into the issue under discussion.

2. Colloquy

Colloquy is a formal discussion. As a part of lessons colloquies are useful in developing perception, awareness, and in-depth exploration. The participants in a colloquy need to be well prepared. To begin with the class has to select a moderator, who will conduct the discussion in the right direction. The discussing group can sit in a circle, in front of the class while the rest of the students listen and observe. At the end of the discussion, they can question or present their views on the discussion.

3. The fisltbowl

This is a more interesting form of colloquy. A group of participants are selected to conduct a discussion on a given topic. They sit in a circle. The rest of the class sits behind them in the larger circle. The remaining students, sitting behind, observe critically both the content and the process of discussion, e.g. did everyone participate in the discussion? Did they miss any important aspect of the issue? Did they provide feedback on the discussion at the end? This form of colloquy is called fisltbowl because the participants in the discussion are watched by the observers as fish in a bowl.

4. Values clarification

This category of activities help students to reflect and reconsider their own values, attitudes and vision.

Teacher questioning

When a student speaks out on attitudes, if the teacher feels, that he/she needs to reconsider it, she asks a simple question, without expecting a reply in order to bring insight.

E.g. Student: Love is an illusion.

Teacher: What kind of love do you mean here?
(Other possible questions)

Q. What about mother`s love?

Q. What prompted you to come to this conclusion?

Q. Is there a love, beyond our illusionary loves?

This side and that side

The class stands in a space without furniture, where they can move freely. The teacher asks the class a value ridden question and says, `Those who agree with the statement go to that side, and those who do not agree stay on this side.` Examples for value ridden statement:

By bad means you can achieve good ends.

Productions just environmental pollution.

Village life is better than urban life.

Issues arising in subjects like social studies, civics, and history could be discussed in this form, e.g. Science serves only the rich.

When the students divide themselves into `agree` and `not agree` groups, the teacher asks: each one in the group to give at least one reason for his/her position.

The opposition party can disprove the argument. Lively debates and discussions emerge out of the situation naturally.

5. Case studies

Provide a case study relevant to the issue under discussion in the lesson. Students can critically study it, in groups and answer the given questions. They can identify the cause - effect relationship, underlying principles, practical implications of the issue.

6. Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a method of encouraging students to come out with ideas, solutions, or views about the issue under study. It generates creative ideas and alternative solutions to problems.

E.g. the teacher says, "" Let us find out the various uses of a handkerchief. Each one of you think of at least two uses and discuss them. Let us find out 15 uses within five minutes."" Then the class responds with ideas. The teacher lists them on the board. During this responding stage, she should refrain from any criticism of the ideas presented. Criticism discourages creative responses. When you find children have exhausted their ideas, review the responses, identify basic concepts and build the intended knowledge for the lesson.

7. Puzzles

The teacher gives a puzzle related to the lesson. The class has to guess, or find the solution. They can work individually or in groups.

E.g. Leopard, goat and fodder.

`A man buys a leopard a goat and a budge of fodder and takes them home. On the way he comes across a river there is a small boat, which allows only one thing to be taken across with him at a time. How does he solve the problems? For example: If he takes the leopard on the boat, leaving the goat behind it will eat the fodder or if he leaves the goat, the leopard will eat the goat. How does he take all three across?

Children in groups have to find the solution in groups. Every country has thought provoking puzzles. They provide effective tools for improving skills in problem-solving and creative thinking. They provide rich tools for improvising problems, slowness and creative thinking activities in children.

Crossword puzzles

Prepare a simple crossword puzzle as an exercise, to be given at the end of the class. The words are taken from the terms used in the lesson.

8. Self-expression

Children like to express their feelings, wishes, fancies and ideas in various forms. They can be used as effective learning activities in the class. Examples: Sharing experiences on an issue under discussion. Expressing one`s future wishes e.g. If I am a doctor.. . . . Expressing imaginary wishes e.g. If I am a bird.. . . . Getting into great characters e.g. suppose you are Socrates. You have been condemned to death by the citizens of Athens. Give a speech to the public after the conviction.

These activities can be done in writing as well. Interesting insights emerge out of such free expressions, which could be used to enrich the lesson.

9. Co-operative story-telling

To stimulate creative thinking, children can sit in a circle and build a story. The first child starts with a sentence to begin the story. The second one adds another sentence and it goes from one after another in the round. The story gradually builds up adding. new events. The teacher may intervene at difficult points to help the process go on the right track. Once it is completed it can be edited to assume an acceptable form.

10. Making stories

The groups are given a situation discussed in the lesson, e.g. a story of a slave, working under the tyranny of a pharaoh in Egypt. .A part of the story can be given, to find a successful end by the groups. The stories can be written and read or acted out.

11. Writing poetry or songs

Children can be easily guided to write simple verses or songs. Stimulate their effective feelings on a given topic, allow them to express feelings in the class and let them write the feelings in poetical forms. Their writing could be recited or sung.

12. Drawing

Drawing is an activity that can be used for almost every subject in various ways. In a traditional school, drawing is considered to be an activity, which should be taught only by a trained artist. Teachers of other subjects think they can`t draw and therefore they shouldn`t use drawing in their subjects. They also think that drawing involves following many rules which they do not know or are unfamiliar with. However any teacher in any subject could use drawing creatively in spite of whether she has had a formal training in it or not. In such contexts, drawing is used exclusively for free expression. The fear of children that they can`t draw beautifully should be removed. Here are two examples showing how drawing could be used in other subjects.

* Language - Drawing students` impression of an event in literature.

* Religion -Drawing a picture that portrays a religious motto.

Drawing is also a useful tool for development of attitudes. Consider the effects on children in drawing the following topics.

How do I see myself? Draw your self-portrait.

Draw a portrait of your friend.

Make a mask to express a particular emotion, e.g. kindness, joy, terror.

Think of a good deed you have done. Draw a series of cartoons showing how and what you did. Show it to your friends.

Draw yourself, in a disaster, e.g. caught in a flood/ a fire/ lost in a forest.

Draw a fantasy creature, by joining parts of various animals.

Drawing could be done in groups as well. Such group collaboration helps children to experience co-operation and to develop socializing skills. E.g. draw [in groups]: a scene from a fairy tale.

Alternatives One member in the group draws an object [a tree, animal, etc] others one by one add things to improve the picture.

Whatever children draw needs to be appreciated in the class.

13. Guided fantasy

As we pointed out earlier, children are highly imaginative. This powerful faculty could be fruitfully used while learning in the class. Especially, imagination can appeal to deep positive feelings in children, such as kindness and peace. Examples: You want to describe the Sahara desert. You can take them on a fantasy trip. You ask the children to close their eyes and relax for a while as in meditation. Then you say, ""Let`s go on an imaginary trip to Sahara. We all get wings. We fly, as a group over the great desert. You see vegetation is getting thinner and thinner, and finally all that you see is a land of sand "" So you continue describing the desert in picturesque language. After the experience you request the students to express what they saw in their minds` eye and how they felt. Guided fantasy could be used for meditation, which evokes deep, peaceful, pleasant and aesthetic feelings. Such activities help emotional development.

14. Acting out

Acting out certain situations and events makes learning fun and entertaining. It specially helps to improve speech. There are several forms of acting that can be used in the classroom.

Making funny faces

This is an activity, which brings fun, particularly good for primary grades. Children stand in a circle. The first child has an unusual expression on his face. The face is passed around the circle. Many variations could be used. For example, the teacher calls out an adjective: e.g. kind, sad, and strong. Children imitate the quality on the teacher`s face.


In pantomiming children express certain actions by gestures in silence. In these activities children express certain actions by silent gestures. E.g. gesturing how a guitar is played/Drawing water from a well/ Opening a door/ Searching for a lost object, etc.

15. Energizers Variations

The teacher describes a situation, e.g. "" You are walking alone on a road. Suddenly you see a poisonous snake. You take fright."" A volunteer comes to the middle of the circle and pantomimes.

A small group pantomimes an occupation or an event. Others guess it.


Role-play involves setting up an imagined situation through acting out certain characters. The teacher sets the scene by inviting a number of students to play out a scene, relevant to the lesson. The activity takes the forms of instant extempore drama or dialogue. Role-plays develop children`s skills in communication They can help inculcation of good attitudes as well. The activity is especially helpful to develop understanding of the characters they play. Role-play needs to be followed by reflection and discussion.


This is an activity, which tries to recreate a situation by acting out the characters and the events in order to study it, e.g. interview, a scene at the post office,

15. Icebreakers

These are activities that help to break down barriers between participants making them relaxed and interactive. They open up and create the social climate conducive to the session. e.g.

* Say your name and a thing you like most and a thing you don`t like most.

* Go outside and pick up something that represents you. Introduce yourself to the group though it.

These are physical game like activities used to release students` stress and boredom. They arouse energy. When the teacher finds children are restless or bored or in low energy, she gives one or two energizers for a short while and then starts or continues the lesson.

e.g. Fruit salad

Children sit in a circle on chairs. The teacher asks them to give four names of fruits they like most. They call out names of the four fruits one by one in sequence in, the circle. Then a participant is invited to come to the middle. His chair is then removed so that one chair is short in the circle. The child in the middle calls out one name of the fruits. Then those who have called out the name of that fruit, exchange their seats quickly. Meanwhile, the participant in the middle runs and sits on an empty seat. As a result, someone finds no seat to sit on. That participant becomes the next leader and continues the game by calling out another name of a fruit.


1. The leaders can call out two names.

2. When the leader says fruit salad, all the children have to change their seats.

3. Other items could be used instead of fruit, e.g. `Those who are vegetarians change their seats.

17. Co-operative games

There are activities designed to build up co-operation, group awareness and trust in the groups. Everyone has to work together in the activities, e.g. make a machine joining up together and rhythmically show how it works, with sounds.

A small group holds hands in a tight circle and pressing themselves together, by holding others. Two outside participants come and try to untangle the group.

18. Making sounds

These games are vocal energizers. They are noisy and should be performed in the open air so that others in the school are not disturbed. Children imitate various sounds, e.g.

Rain storm, thundering, a night in a jungle, a railway station

19. Affirmation activities

These activities are effective in developing the self-esteem of children. Children express affection, positive remarks, appreciation and friendship for each other either verbally or non verbally, in these activities, e.g.: Children move around the classroom making pleasant comments to each one they meet.

A child is invited to come to the middle of the class. The participants one by one come to him/ her and expresses their positive feelings in a manner that makes the child feel happy.


A letter written by Abraham Lincoln to the Headmaster of a school in which his son was studying. It contains an advice, which is still relevant today for executives, workers, teachers, parents and students.


""He will have to learn, I know, that all men are not just and are not true. But teach him if you can the wonder of books. But also give him quiet time to ponder the eternal mystery of birds in the sky, bees in the sun and flowers on a green hillside.

In school, teach him it is far more honorable to fall than to cheat.....

Teach to have faith in his own ideas, even if everyone tells him he is wrong.

Teach him to be gentle with gentlepeople and tough with the tough.

Try to give my son the strength not to follow the crowd when everyone getting on the bandwagon...

Teach him to listen to all men; but teach him also to filter all he hears on a screen of truth, and take only the good that comes through.

Teach him, if you can how to laugh when he is sad... Teach him there is no shame in tears.

Teach him to scoff at cynics and to be beware of too much sweetness. Teach him to sell his brawn and brain to highest bidders, but never to put a price on his heart and soul. Teach him to close his ears to a howling mob and stand and fight if thinks he is right.

Treat him gently, but do not cuddle him, because only the test of fire makes fine steel. Let him have the courage to be impatient Let him have the patience to be brave. Teach him always to have sublime faith in himself, because then he will have faith in humankind.

This is a big order, but see what you can do. . He is such a fine little fellow my son!

- Abraham Lincoln""



shOObh theme of the year 2014 is JOY.
Human welfare through creative means is at the core of shOObh group. Our programs are designed to educate the people on issues that concern humanity. Keeping with this vision, we are proud to organize shOObh Arts Competition-2014

2013 - shOObh theme of the year 2013 is WATER. Water is beautiful and we want people to love water, because when you adore something you tend to take care of it more. An all India contests open to participation of school children and teachers.

2012 - Theme: “Be the change you want to see in the world”- Gandhi in association with Gandhi Peace Foundation and supported by ONGC. For details logon to

2011 – Theme ”People `n` Animal” in association with PETA. The project aimed to introduce animal welfare in schools through extra curricular activity. The larger goal of the campaign was to lay down the seeds of compassion and kindness in early years of personality formation of a child. For details logon to

2010 –Theme “My dream sport” in sync with CWC. The Competition was billed as the largest in Asia (TOI, HT, PTI, USA Today, Qatar Tribune etc.). For details logon to


do you have a camera…do you have a photographic memory that was never developed….a scene…you feel is profound, beautiful or simply comical.. JUST CLICK & submit it to us…..The rest, as they say, will go down in history….So, if you think you are good at photography & want to prove it, just come to this event.

NIOS Konnect

NIOS Konnect is an official platform Of NIOS students, By NIOS students, For NIOS students.
{a shOObh Group initiative}

Members of the NIOS Konnect (that`s you) – Staff, Students and Alumni – are scattered across the globe & our online content reaches just as wide. The NIOS Konnect has a huge presence online and we`re keen to build a relationship with you in the spaces you`re already comfortable with, as well as trying out new spaces together.
You`ve got a Facebook profile right? So have we! Join us here and find out what students & non-students alike are saying about their NIOS experience. You may also join few online apps… shortly.

About NIOS:

The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly known as National Open School (NOS) was established in November,1989 as an autonomous organisation in pursuance of National Policy on Education 1986 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India. NIOS is providing a number of Vocational, Life Enrichment and community oriented courses besides General and Academic Courses at Secondary and Senior Secondary level.

Vision : Sustainable inclusive learning with universal and flexible access to quality school education and skill development.

Mission : (i).Providing relevant, continuing and holistic education up to pre-degree level through Open and Distance Learning System. (ii). Contributing to the Universalisation of School Education. (iii). Catering to the educational needs of the prioritized target groups for equity and social justice

About shOObh:

shOObh Group Welfare Society is a non profit community based organization registered under societies registration act xxi of 1860 working in the field of community-service and action, education, health, personal growth and improvement, social welfare and self-help for the disadvantaged. Our programs are designed to educate people on human welfare issues. In all of shOObh Group projects different art forms are used to convey the message. shoobh Group has worked on different social issues.

Right to Education
Education Policy
History of Education in India
School Health & Aid
Inclusive education
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